Metabolic syndrome (sometimes also referred to as the deadly quartet, Reavan's syndrome or syndrome X[1]) is now seen as the key risk factor in coronary heart disease. It is characterised by these four factors: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure (hypertension), altered lipid values (dyslipidemia) and insulin resistance. The illness develops from a lifestyle characterised by permanent overeating and a lack of physical activity, and affects a large proportion of people living in industrialised nations.This brief explanation from Wikipedia not only lists the four unnatural bodily conditions, but explains their simultaneous appearance with the supposedly dominating lifestyle in industrialised nations.
If we look at all of the facts equally and together, and try to find a reason for the supposed causes as well as the consequences, metabolic syndrome – which results in "coronary heart disease" – presents itself as a natural reaction in the body to a threat.
The extreme occurrence of the syndrome in the industrialised world also fits perfectly into the following explanation model.The primary task of any living organism is to take all necessary nutrients from its environment, in order to keep itself in an ideal, healthy condition. 
The concept of "living off the fat of the land" does not lose its meaning because it takes in exactly as much nutrition as its body can process, in order to continue to develop in a healthy way.
We should assume that this works in a similar way in humans. However, we have seen millions of times that human beings are harming themselves through their eating habits and behaviour.  
This means that the only living being on earth that is believed to be endowed with reason does not have the ability to instinctively behave in a way that is healthy. 
This negative characteristic of half of humankind also highlights the fact that it may be an industrially generated condition that triggers this irrational behaviour in people.

What can cause an organism to constantly increase its blood pressure and consume an extreme amount of glucose and fat?
A constant lack of glucose and fat in the organism.

The body is regulated centrally.The heart regulates blood pressure; the intestines provide glucose and fat, which are distributed by centrally regulated accompanying substances (insulin, cholesterol).
If a lack appears in a small part of the body, the central machinery is set in motion in order to compensate for this insufficiency. If this is not successful, the system continues relentlessly until collapse.
This means that metabolic syndrome and all of the other accompanying conditions have a logical explanation.

1. Arterial hypertension

The bloodstream is a closed tube membrane system. Blood pressure is generated and regulated by the pumping of our heart. Blood pressure must reach certain values in all areas of our body to ensure exchange of substances with the surrounding tissue. Control of the local pressure ratios is monitored via corresponding sensors in the membranes of the arteries and in the tissue. If the pressure increases or decreases outside of the normal range somewhere in the body, the sensors sound the alarm via the cerebellum, and the heart adjusts to meet the relevant needs by means of its own nerve supply.
If an under-supply of nutrients is identified in one part of the body, blood pressure is increased until normal supply is restored in this area. Normally the membranes of the arteries in all parts of the body only allow a certain volume of blood to flow into the cells per time unit. Inter-cellular exchange of blood in the areas with normal blood circulation is regulated by means of muscle tension in the arteries, so that over-supply does not occur.
Vice versa, blood pressure is reduced if a dangerous leak in the bloodstream is discovered, which would lead to over-supply to the tissue or loss of blood at normal blood pressure. For this reason, women of childbearing age tend to have slightly low blood pressure as they lose blood during menstruation. If blood pressure were increased during this time, this would lead to a dangerously high loss of blood. 
In the middle ages, this natural reaction was used in phlebotomy in order to regulate blood pressure. Blood pressure is also reduced in the case of injuries involving heavy bleeding, so that blood loss is kept as low as possible. For this reason, the bleeding must always be stopped before the blood pressure can be normalised.
Thus, permanent deviations from the norm in blood pressure are caused by processes within the body. The values show that certain influences have an effect; they are not illnesses in themselves, but highlight the current risk.
Therefore, if low blood pressure can be explained by excessively light outflow of blood, high blood pressure is explained by prevention of the exchange of nutrients with the tissue. The blood flow is normally only partially prevented, but because the heart determines the blood pressure, arterial hypertension occurs all over the body. 
Possible triggers can be increased muscle tension through maldistribution of stress, constriction of the blood vessels, lack of nutrients or oxygen in the blood, etc.ExampleWhen smoking, the proportion of carbon dioxide in the air increases, meaning that less oxygen gets into the lungs. This creates an under-supply of oxygen within the body.
This leads to the alarm being raised, and the heart increases the blood pressure so that enough oxygen can be distributed throughout the body. Blood pressure also increases if there is a lack of nutrients or in the event of other disruptions to the metabolism. 
Physical exertion increases blood pressure as the muscles report a greater need for nutrients and oxygen. If the body adapts to an elevated nutrient requirement in the musculature through constant training, blood pressure is sure to be below the normal values during rest periods. However, seemingly normal movements and activities can also influence blood pressure.Everyday strainAll external influences that have an effect on the feet influence muscle tension in the entire body. The impulses from outside change constantly when walking barefoot, meaning that muscle tension is subject to constant change. When wearing shoes, the effective impulses are the same or very similar over a long period of time. Thus, the muscular reaction of the body is also the same over hours.
This automatically leads to overload in the affected musculature and to maldistribution of stress within the entire muscle system. All areas of the body tense up. This also has an effect on the blood vessels, which are narrowed by the surrounding musculature tensing up. This makes it more difficult for the affected musculature to absorb nutrients, which, in turn, leads to the heart being prompted to increase blood pressure.
The tensing-up of the muscles has the greatest effect around the trigger, i.e. in the feet and lower leg. The toes are very much hindered in their natural movement by shoes. All long flexor and extensor muscles in the toes are located in the lower leg. As they have remain motionless due to the forced limitation of movement in the toes, they tense up and prevent arterial blood flow into the foot. This automatically leads to the aforementioned "alarm report" being sent to the heart, and to an increase in blood pressure.
In women of childbearing age, the regulatory system has to decide between the risk of extreme blood loss during menstruation and under-supply to the feet. It is for this reason that such women often have cold feet and hands. If the pill is taken to prevent conception, the effective ingredient tells the body that it does not need to fear menstruation. As a result, blood pressure increases, meaning that there is better circulation in the feet again. The feet and hands feel warm as normal. If the woman then stops taking the pill, enormous stress is placed on the heart because the blood pressure needs to be reduced as quickly as possible to account for menstruation. Despite this, the bleeding during menstruation is normally stronger than usual. The reduction in blood pressure reduces the speed of blood flow and promotes the formation of thromboses. If the pill is taken again after menstruation, blood pressure increases and the resulting micro-thromboses may be loosened and lead to a stroke.
The same blood pressure increase of course also happens during pregnancy. After the end of the menopause, blood pressure finally increases to the value needed to supply the limbs with enough nutrient-rich blood. At this time, women display the same blood pressure values as men.
 In contrast to the female sex, men are not protected from high blood pressure through natural blood outflow. For this reason, the harmful mechanisms of this state have a much longer effect on their bodies. This explains the greater prevalence of coronary heart disease among men. 
 Venous insufficiency and thrombosisThe system of veins that ensures return of blood to the heart is particularly impaired by the surrounding musculature tensing up. Because it does not have its own musculature, it is dependent on active muscle movements around it, meaning that changes in pressure result in blood flow in the veins. The further the blood is from the centre of the body, the more active the musculature surrounding the veins must be. This primarily means the calf musculature, which represents the main drive for venous blood into the legs. If the calf musculature tenses up as described above, the pressure on the veins is constant rather than pulsating. This means that the venous blood is not transported to the heart but pressed into the outer veins through the connecting veins.
The consequences of this are skin discolouration caused by bleeding, disruptions in the feeding of nutrients to the skin and swelling.
If the venous blood is not transported by muscle movements, it prevents the re-flow of nutrient-rich arterial blood. Thus, the tissue and muscles are not optimally nourished, resulting in further tensing-up. This vicious circle leads to further increases in blood pressure and, in the long term, to venous insufficiency, and promotes the development of thromboses. These conditions can only be avoided if the long foot musculature in the lower leg is given enough room to move. Active toe movement when stepping is therefore key to the functioning of our bloodstream.   Long-term consequencesTensing-up in the calf musculature, which leads to the aforementioned increase in blood pressure, has other long-term effects on the muscles themselves, and the surrounding tissue. The necessary exchange of substances between the nutrient-rich blood and the muscle and connective tissue cells is impaired by increased constant muscle pressure. This leads to under-supply of the necessary metabolites to the cells. Lipometabolism and glucose metabolism shall be looked at here. 

2. Lipometabolism

As lipids do not dissolve in blood plasma, lipoproteins, to which the lipids attach, are required for their transport to the cells within the body. There is a good level of awareness of lipoproteins
 LDL (low density lipoprotein) and HDL (high density lipoprotein), because they are required for the distribution of fatty acids within the body.
Whilst LDS cholesterol transports fat into the cells of the body, HDL cholesterol brings fat components from the cells to the liver.
LDL has a greater volume than HDL. As it needs to get from the bloodstream into the surrounding cells together with the connected fatty acids, the membranes of the arteries should allow for permeation.
If permanent muscular pressure is exerted on the wall of the artery, the pore size of the membranes in the artery wall decreases, limiting the exchange of lipids between the blood and cells. Due to the smaller volume of HDL, the return flow of HDL cholesterol from the cells to the liver is less impaired.
This results in a lack of lipids in the calf cells.
Our body reacts to this insufficiency with an increase in the cholesterol level in the blood, therefore providing a larger quantity of fat. Naturally, blood pressure is increased, as described above.
This has various consequences.

4. Glucose metabolism

The normal pulsating movements of the muscles facilitate exchange of substances perfectly. Tension in the musculature makes exchange of substances with the muscle cells more difficult. Muscles that are constantly under tension need to be supplied with glucose in accordance with their performance.
The difficult supply conditions make sufficient glucose supply to the muscles impossible.
A lack of nutrients in the muscle cells is therefore reported, prompting the body to increase the concentration of glucose in the blood. Insulin is produced constantly in order to facilitate transport of glucose from the blood into the cells. The lack of glucose at this point in the musculature cannot, however, be compensated for with tensing-up in the calf musculature, meaning that the warning continues to have an effect on the body. The body demands the supply of external glucose and we develop a craving for "something sweet".
This set of circumstances can have a very long-lasting effect, meaning that the glucose metabolism works on a high level and large quantities of insulin are required. In the long term, this leads to insulin resistance.
Overload of the islets of Langerhans, and therefore collapse of insulin production, are also possible.

5. Abdominal obesity 

Another effect of a permanently increased insulin level is the storage of fat from the blood in fat cells. If the hormone insulin comes across free lipids in the bloodstream, it stores these lipids in fat cells in the stomach region. The more insulin and fatty acids are moving around in the blood, the more fat cells are filled. This influences both metabolic systems. On the one hand, the lipometabolism, because the increased fat concentration is diminished. On the other hand, the insulin level in the blood is decreased, meaning that the pancreas is forced to produce more insulin.
This means that an increasing amount of cholesterol and insulin are provided.

6. Permanent overeating

In order to bring glucose and fat into the body, our cerebellum suppresses the feeling of being full. The "requirement report" sent by the cerebellum to the cerebrum is so decisive that the cerebrum only needs to think about the supply of food.
A craving for sweet and fatty foods soon develops; it is almost impossible to override this by educating someone to exercise reason. On the contrary, the cerebellum utilises all possible ways to procure nutrition, right through to activation of the addiction centre. Whilst the requirements of the cerebellum could, of course, not be met during the decades of limited nutrition, today this pressing need to consume food is gladly fulfilled by the industry, in order to generate increasing turnover.Despite this internal bodily reaction, warnings of insufficiency in the calf musculature, and later the muscle and tissue structures near the heart, cannot be compensated for as the reason – the constant tensing-up – is caused by external forces.

7. Reluctance towards and lack of physical activity

The aforementioned tensing-up, particularly in the calf musculature, makes free, elastic walking and running impossible. In contrast, various small pains appear when attempting to walk for a longer period.
These reactions in the body are independent of age, because they are triggered by tensed-up muscles.
The natural range of movement, e.g. when walking and running, is limited by the tensing-up of the calf and thigh musculature to such an extent that painful calves quickly develop during walking or stitches in the sides quickly appear when running. This, of course, leads to reluctance to engage in physical activity, regardless of age, and to a lack of movement.

8. Atherosclerosis

As the toes are almost always motionless, the tensing-up of the lower leg musculature persists during the night. In the long term, this fixes the arterial musculature and changes it into inelastic connective tissue. Only a limited volume of blood is able to flow into the tissue, meaning that a lack of nutrients is permanently reported. In turn, this forces the heart to further increase blood pressure. In the regions of the internal body with normal supply, the arterial musculature has to permanently narrow the membranes due to the high blood pressure. This also leads to static tensing-up and, in the long term, to conversion of muscle tissue into connective tissue. This makes atherosclerosis unavoidable. The highest pressure is of course near the heart. For this reason, it is in these areas that the arterial musculature is under the most strain and is converted into connective tissue the earliest.  
The arteries near the heart, which are very muscular, have to narrow their membranes in order to regulate the exchange of substances with the surrounding cells. If the high blood pressure lasts for a long time, the musculature in the large arteries remains constantly tensed up. The pore size of the membranes is reduced, limiting exchange of lipids, like in the calves. This creates another area of insufficiency. The LDL cholesterol tries to pass through the narrowed membrane pores, but some remain stuck in the membrane and block it. The resulting deposits form a coating on the inside of the arteries, and this leads to atherosclerosis in the long term. In line with the reaction to the increased blood pressure, the atherosclerosis occurs in the calves and in the arteries near the heart, with all resulting disorders.
If medication is taken to combat the hypertension, the nutritional needs of the musculature and the supply of nutrients contradict one another. For this reason, the heart attempts to maintain the blood pressure against the effects of the medication. This results in extreme overload of the heart musculature, with a long-term reaction being collapse. The medication could lead to a heart attack. Instead, we should see increased blood pressure as a sign of a nutritional disorder in the body, and investigate the reasons. If – through the process of elimination – the possible reason for the hypertension is narrowed down to the musculature tensing up, progress in treatment can be observed through changes in the blood pressure values. The development of blood pressure values can also be consulted when observing recovery from other illnesses. This context is very useful particularly in the case of illnesses that are difficult to monitor. Parkinson's disease is a good example of this. However, this monitoring is also possible in the case of many muscle and joint disorders.The deposits occur in accordance with the blood pressure between these regions of the body.


If the long toe musculature in the calf is forced to permanently tense up due to various influences, this results in the aforementioned effects.
As the lack of nutrients and disruption to blood circulation happen at the same time, an increase in blood pressure can soon be seen in males. The over-saturation of the blood with fat and glucose causes fat stores to be developed through the influence of insulin. Obesity will occur over an extended period of time. Constantly high cholesterol values are, of course, present. A permanently high insulin requirement will lead to the development of type II diabetes within approx. 5 - 10 years. During this period, atherosclerotic plaques will have already formed in the described areas, making coronary heart disease likely. A side effect of lasting tensing-up of the toe muscles is pressure on the fibular and tibial nerves. In the long term, this reduces the speed of nerve conduction, and leads to peripheral polyneuropathy (PNP). This leads us to assume that diabetes mellitus is not the cause, but that PNP occurs alongside.



Patients with existing type II diabetes simultaneously suffer from the following at the following percentages     

  • 83.8% from arterial hypertension
  • 65.2%    from lipometabolism disorders
  • 27.1% from coronary heart disease
  • 20.4%    from diabetic neuropathy

Starting from the aforementioned formation sequences, we can also logically explain the various percentage values.

As arterial hypertension is the first bodily reaction and therefore has the longest effect, the arterial musculature is hardened and the reason for arterial hypertension is thus fixed.
The reason that this does not affect 100% of patients is that the human body is able to develop hypotension, i.e. low blood pressure, instead of hypertension, in order to nourish the limbs, and therefore keep the body “ticking over” just and no more. The low blood pressure makes it possible to maintain equal blood flow in the foot and lower leg, despite narrowing of the arteries in the calf. This is often the case in female patients. However, a certain proportion of men also follow this route.
These patients have never been fat, however the reports of insufficiency from the regions of the body still arrive, and the reactions are also carried out at a very slowed pace. Lipometabolism disorders always occur in the case of arterial hypertension. Once the condition of type II diabetes is reached, the necessary insulin is lacking and the fatty acids are no longer taken from the blood and stored in fat cells. This makes saturation of the blood possible again, with low cholesterol values. On the contrary, the stored fat can then be fed back into the blood and the obesity is decreased. However, the lack of nutrients persists in the lower limbs and the further development of atherosclerotic plaques continues.
This results in the development of the proportion of coronary heart disease within the group. The lower proportion of female sufferers can be explained by the fact that this group only begins to develop this following the menopause.

"Diabetic" neuropathy only occurs, in my opinion, accompanied by constant pressure in the tensed-up toe muscles. It is for this reason that there are more people with hypotension than hypertension in this group. The fat-free and muscular lower leg muscles generate a high level of pressure on the arteries with poor circulation, meaning that the bordering nerves are easily crushed. This means that polyneuropathy also occurs, without the presence of diabetes, in many similarly inclined people. Typical progression of disordersIn light of the above description, the typical progression of disorders can be explained through regularly occurring influences.
Whilst the occurrence of type II diabetes was diagnosed from an age of at least 40 around 25 years ago, type II diabetes is now occurring in an increasing number of children and teenagers.
This phenomenon is due to the following. 

Until around 1970, the main reason for the long toe musculature constantly tensing up was the occurrence of splayfoot. Due to the firm leather and rubber soles that were primarily on the market at the time, splayfoot did not occur until around the age of 40-50. Increased blood pressure developed first, followed by disruptions in lipometabolism, and finally type II diabetes.

Since young people began primarily wearing soft trainers – in keeping with the American model – splayfoot has been developing much earlier. This means that splayfoot is now often found among very young children. It can be identified by looking at the bare foot whilst standing. Here, the toes are bent towards the ground in a claw-like shape. This means that the tensing-up of the toes has an effect even in early childhood.
Alongside this foot deformity caused by soft shoe soles, today's children's shoes contain further risks. Thick, soft insoles and structured outsoles with different levels of softness are a few examples. In addition, there is the trend of no longer properly lacing shoes up.

These influences have an effect in both children/teenagers and adults. The tensing-up of the toes limits the ability to move, and therefore removes the enjoyment of movement. The high level of insulin and fatty acids that is generated leads to the development of fatty tissue (obesity). Following this, type II diabetes develops, as described above.



During a regular in-patient stay in a rehabilitation facility, all reasons for the muscles tensing up need to be recorded right at the start. This takes place through comprehensive anamnesis, a footprint analysis and a special massage, which looks for tensed-up muscles.
Following a thorough look at the results, the tensing-up should be relieved by means of physiotherapy, muscle loosening and orthopaedic shoe measures. A normal blood pressure value will set in after 2-3 days. The result is secured during the remaining time of the 2-week rehabilitation. This takes place through in-depth informational events and constant monitoring of blood pressure values during different activities (strolling, running, working on the computer).
The cholesterol and blood sugar levels should also be observed, in order to monitor the impact of the treatment on the metabolism.
The patient is prepared for everyday life by being taught relaxation exercises. 
Following initial in-patient treatment lasting approx. 2 weeks, continual out-patient treatment by the informed GP, the orthopaedic shoemaker and the physiotherapist will ensure long-lasting success.

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